A History Of Liverpool
Liverpool began as a tidal pool next to the River Mersey. It was in all probability called the lifer pol meaning muddy pool. There may have been a hamlet at Liverpool before the town was founded in the 13th century. It is not mentioned in the Domesday E-book (1086) but it could have been to small to merit a mention of its own. King John founded the port of Liverpool in 1207. The English had recently conquered Ireland and John needed another port to send men and supplies across the Irish Sea. John started a weekly market by the pool. In those days there were very few outlets so in case you wanted to buy or sell goods you had to go to a market. Once a market was up and running at Liverpool craftsmen and tradesmen would come to dwell in the area.
As well as a weekly market the king gave the citizens of Liverpool the correct to hold an annual fair. In the Middle Ages a fair was like a market but it was held only once a year for a interval of some days. A Liverpool honest would appeal to patrons and sellers from throughout northwest England.
King John divided the land at Liverpool into plots known as burgages on which people may build houses. He invited people to come and dwell in Liverpool. Then in 1229 the king granted the folks of Liverpool one other charter. This time he gave the merchants the fitting to type themselves into an organisation known as a guild to protect their interests. In many medieval towns the Merchant’s Guild also ran the town. In Liverpool the guilds members elected an official referred to as the Reeve to run the city on a day-to-day foundation. The primary point out of a Mayor of Liverpool was in 1351.
Nonetheless Medieval Liverpool would seem tiny to us. Even by the standards of the time it was a small town. In the 14th century Liverpool in all probability had a population of about 1,000. It was not greater than 1200. Most of the folks of Liverpool lived at partly by farming. Others had been fishermen. Some have been craftsmen or tradesmen reminiscent of brewers, butchers, blacksmiths and carpenters. Stone Furthermore a little bit stream ran into the pool and it powered a watermill that ground grain into flour for the townspeople’s bread. There was additionally a windmill Southeast of the pool.
In the Middle Ages some wine from France was imported by Liverpool but its essential trading accomplice was Eire. Skins and hides had been imported from Ireland. Iron and wool had been exported from Liverpool. Regardless of its small dimension Liverpool sent 2 MPs to Parliament in 1295.
Curiously Liverpool did not have its own parish church, only a chapel. (A chapel was a kind of ‘daughter’ church dependent on a parish church close by). The primary chapel in Liverpool was the Chapel of St Mary. By the center of the 14th century there was additionally the chapel of Our Lady and St Nicholas. St Nicholas is the patron saint of sailors, which was obviously acceptable to a port like Liverpool. By 1235 there was a castle at Liverpool.
LIVERPOOL In the 16th CENTURY AND 17th CENTURY
In the 16th century Eire was still Liverpool’s important trading accomplice. In 1540 a writer said: ‘Irish merchants come much hither as to a great harbor’. He also said there was ‘good merchandise at Liverpool and much Irish yarn, that Manchester men purchase there’. Skins and hides had been nonetheless imported from Eire. Exports from Liverpool at that time included coal, woolen cloth, knives and leather-based goods. There were still many fishermen in Liverpool.
The port of Liverpool also benefited when English troops were transported to Ireland to put down rebellions in the 16th and early seventeenth centuries. The troops spent money in the city. Liverpool was growing at the moment but it surely still had a population of only 2,000 in 1600. The population of Liverpool probably reached 2,500 by the time of the civil war in 1642. Like all towns at that time Liverpool suffered from outbreaks of the plague. There were extreme outbreaks in 1558 and 1609, 1647 and 1650. Meanwhile in 1515 a grammar college was founded in Liverpool.
In 1642 the civil conflict between king and parliament began. At first Liverpool was in royalist arms but in Could 1643 Parliamentarian soldiers took the town. They dug ditches and erected earth ramparts around Liverpool to defend it from royalist attack. In June 1644 Prince Rupert led a royalist army to try and re-capture Liverpool. He described the town as a ‘mere crows nest which a parcel of boys could take’. At first attacks were repulsed but then the Parliamentary troops left by sea leaving the people of Liverpool to defend their town themselves. The royalists attacked Liverpool one night. The townspeople resisted fiercely but were overcome. A lot of them had been killed. The royalist troops then sacked Liverpool. Nonetheless Liverpool solely remained in royalist fingers for a matter of weeks. Within the summer of 1644 the royalists lost the battle of Marston Moor. Following the battle they lost the whole of the North of England, including Liverpool.
Liverpool began to develop quickly within the late 1600s with the expansion of English colonies in North America and the West Indies. Liverpool was, clearly, nicely positioned to trade with colonies across the Atlantic. The town boomed. In 1673 a new Town Hall was built on pillars. Underneath them was an alternate where merchants may purchase and promote items.
At the top of the seventeenth century a author named Celia Fiennes visited Liverpool and gave it a glowing report. She mentioned: ‘Liverpool is built on the river Mersey. It is generally newly built, of brick and stone after the London style. The original (town) was a couple of fishermen’s homes. It has now grown into a big, high-quality city. It’s however one parish with one church though there be 24 streets in it, there may be indeed a bit chapel and there are an amazing many dissenters in the city (Protestants who did not belong to the Church of England). It is a very wealthy trading town, the houses are of brick and stone, built high and even so that a street appears very handsome. The streets are effectively paved. There may be an abundance of persons who’re nicely dressed and fashionable. The streets are honest and long. Its London in miniature as much as I ever saw anything. There may be a very pretty alternate. It stands on 8 pillars, over which is a very handsome Town Hall.’ She also mentioned: ‘The city of Prescot stands on a high hill. It is a very pretty, neat city with a big market place and nicely paved, broad streets.’
In 1684 almshouses had been in-built Dale Avenue. They were followed in 1692 by almshouses in Shaws Brow. Then in 1699 Liverpool was finally made a parish of its own. The first parish church was St Peters, which was in-built 1704. In the meantime in 1660-78 mens stone island scarf components of the castle had been demolished. The remainder was demolished early in the 18th century.
LIVERPOOL In the 18th CENTURY
In the early 1700s the writer Daniel Defoe also commented on Liverpool’s booming trade. He mentioned: ‘Liverpool has an opulent, flourishing and growing trade to Virginia and English colonies in America. They trade round the whole island (of Nice Britain), send ships to Norway, to Hamburg and to the Baltic as also to Holland and Flanders (roughly modern Belgium).’
In 1708 the Blue coat School for 50 poor boys was built. (It was known as that because of their college uniforms). The Royal Infirmary was based in 1749. In 1754 a brand new City Corridor was constructed.
Georgian Liverpool grew rapidly. By the early 18th century it had probably reached a population of 5,000. By 1750 the population of Liverpool had reached 20,000 and by 1801 77,000. Many of the inhabitants had been immigrants. In 1795 a writer spoke about ‘the good inflow of Irish and Welsh of whom nearly all of the inhabitants at present consists’.
Many of the poor in Liverpool lived in dreadful conditions. Their houses were overcrowded and streets were dirty. There were no sewers solely cesspits. The worst homes had been the cellar dwellings. The poorest folks lived in cellars below buildings. Typically they slept on piles of straw because they could not afford beds.
The first dock in Liverpool was built in 1715. Previously ships were simply tied up by the shore but as the port grew busier this was no longer enough. Four more docks had been built in the 18th century. Liverpool grew to be the third largest port in the country behind London and Bristol. It benefited from the growth of industry in Manchester. Since it was a nearby port goods from Manchester had been exported by Liverpool.
From about 1730 the merchants of Liverpool made big profits from the slave trade. The trade formed a triangle. Goods from Manchester were given to the Africans in return for slaves. The slaves were transported across the Atlantic to the West Indies and sugar was brought back from there to Liverpool. At the tip of the century a famous actor visited Liverpool. When he was booed he advised the audience that every brick of their town was ‘cemented with the blood of an African’.
In the 18th century sugar refining became an important industry in Liverpool. Shipbuilding also became a flourishing business. Rope making also prospered. (Rope was, obviously, needed in giant amounts by ships). In Liverpool there was also some manufacturing industry such as iron working, watch making and Stone Island Sweaters pottery. Meanwhile in the 18th century rivers had been deepened to make it easier for ships to sail on them. The Mersey and Irwell had been deepened in 1720 and the Sankey Brook in 1755. From 1748 night watchmen patrolled the streets of Liverpool at night and in 1778 a dispensary was opened in John Street were the poor could acquire free medicines.
The American Conflict of Independence began in 1776. At first it disrupted trade from Liverpool. Obviously it ended commerce with the colonies themselves but it surely also meant American ships attacked English merchant shipping trading with the West Indies. They captured the ships and gear their cargoes. In 1778 France, Spain and Holland declared battle on Britain. That meant ships from Liverpool may assault French, Spanish and Dutch ships and take their cargoes.
LIVERPOOL In the 19th CENTURY
In 1801 the population of Liverpool was about 77,000 and by 1821 the population had reached 118,000. In 1835 the boundaries of Liverpool were prolonged to incorporate Kirkdale and components of Toxteth and West Derby. By 1851 the inhabitants of Liverpool had reached 376,000. There were many Irish immigrants to Liverpool in the early 19th century. Their numbers reached a peak during the potato famine in the 1840s.
At the end of the 18th century, sea bathing grew to become fashionable among the upper and middle classes in England. They believed it was good in your health. In the early 19th century many people went sea bathing on the beach Northwest of Liverpool but in time newly built docks encroached on the beach. Meanwhile in 1802 Harthill Botanic Gardens had been laid out.
The port of Liverpool boomed in the 1800s and many new docks mens stone island scarf were built. By the middle of the century Liverpool was second only to London. The Manchester ship canal was completed in 1894. Although the docks dominated Liverpool there were other industries such as shipbuilding, iron foundries, glass manufacture and soap making.
However Like all towns in the nineteenth century Liverpool was unsanitary. In 1832 there was a cholera epidemic in Liverpool. Another epidemic followed in 1849. Yet in the course of the 19th century amenities in Liverpool improved. In 1799 and 1802 personal firms started to provide piped water to Liverpool. But it was costly and poor people could not afford it. They relied on barrels or wells. Nevertheless a municipal water supply was begun in Liverpool in 1857. The Philharmonic hall was built in 1849. It burned in 1933 but it was rebuilt. The Central Library was inbuilt 1852 and St George’s Corridor was inbuilt 1854. William Brown library was inbuilt 1860. Picton Reading Room was built in 1879.
In the 19th century amenities in Liverpool continued to improve. The Royal Southern Hospital opened in 1814. An eye hospital opened in 1820. The Northern Hospital followed in 1834. Stanley Hospital opened in 1867. The Walker Artwork Gallery opened in 1877. Stanley park was laid out in 1870 and Sefton Park was opened in 1872. The Palm House was built in 1896.
Meanwhile from 1830 horse drawn buses ran in Liverpool and from 1865 horse drawn trams ran in the streets. The trams were converted to electricity in 1898-1901.
Liverpool officially turned a metropolis in 1880 and by 1881 its population had reached 611,00. In 1895 the boundaries of Liverpool have been extended to include Wavertree, Walton and parts of Toxteth and West Derby.
LIVERPOOL In the 20th CENTURY
By 1901 the population of Liverpool had reached 685,000. In 1904 the boundaries of the city have been prolonged once more to incorporate Fazakerly. In the early 20th century various notable buildings were built in Liverpool. The Tower Building was built in 1908. In the 1910s three of the most famous buildings in Liverpool have been erected on the site of St George’s dock, which had been stuffed in. The Liver Building was built in 1911. The Cunard Building was in-built 1916. The Port of Liverpool constructing was also constructed at the moment. The Lady Lever artwork gallery opened in 1922.
More than 13,000 Liverpudlians died in World Battle I. In 1921 a memorial was erected outside the Cunard building to all the Cunard staff who died in the conflict.
In 1928 a survey showed 14% of the population of Liverpool had been dwelling in poverty. This was, of course, much worse than what we would call poverty at present. In those days poor people had been dwelling at bare survival degree. Within the early twentieth century Liverpool suffered a shortage of homes. Overcrowding was frequent, as was slum housing. The council built some council houses but nothing like enough to solve the problem. Furthermore Liverpool suffered severely within the depression of the nineteen thirties and up to a 3rd of males of working age had been unemployed.
In the course of the Second World Battle Liverpool was a target as it was, obviously, an essential port. Some 3,875 people died in Merseyside and more than 10,000 houses had been destroyed. Many more people were critically injured and many more houses were damaged.
After World Battle II Liverpool council was faced with the task of replacing bombed houses. It also had to change many slum houses. Like other cities Liverpool ‘redeveloped’ central areas of the town in the 1950s and 1960s and many new council houses and flats were built. Over spill towns were built near the city at Kirkby and Skelmersdale Unfortunately demolishing terraced houses and replacing them with high rise flats broke up communities. In 1974 the boundaries of Liverpool were changed so it became part of an administrative area known as Merseyside. Meanwhile the Roman Catholic Cathedral in Liverpool was consecrated in 1967. The Anglican Cathedral was not completed until 1978.
In the later 20th century industries in Liverpool included engineering, cement manufacture, sugar refining and flour milling. For a time, in the 1950s and 1960s the local economic system boomed but it surely turned sour in the late 1970s and 1980s as Liverpool, like the rest of the country suffered from recession. Liverpool became an unemployment black spot. One consequence of Liverpool’s social problems had been the Toxteth riots of 1981. In the last years of the 20th century there were some hopeful signs. Liverpool remains an important port. Because of its place within the Northwest it’s the principle port for buying and selling with North America. Within the 1980s Albert Dock was redeveloped and became an area of bars, shops and restaurants.
From the 1980s Liverpool promoted tourism using its heritage as an attraction. Merseyside Maritime Museum opened in 1980. The Tate Gallery of Modern Artwork opened in 1988. The Museum of Liverpool Life opened in 1993. A Customized and Excise Museum opened in 1994. A Conservation Centre opened in Queens Square in 1996. Also in 1996 the Institute For Performing Arts opened. LIVERPOOL In the 21st CENTURY
In the 21st Century Liverpool is still thriving. The Nationwide Wild Flower Centre opened in 2001 and Liverpool was the European Capital of Tradition in 2008. Then in 2012 Joe Anderson grew to become the first elected mayor of Liverpool. At the moment the population of Liverpool is 478,000.